The efficiency of hydrogen production in some cyanobacteria is limited by the extreme oxygen sensitivity of hydrogenases and the tendency for [NiFe] hydrogenases to thermodynamically favor hydrogen uptake . The biomass of Spirulina strains contains different functional groups, for example, carboxyl, hydroxyl, sulfate, and other charged groups that are important for metal binding. 2. Cyanobacteria produce high-value peptides with industrial and medical applications. In addition, immobilized cyanobacteria show higher efficiency in nutrient or metal removal compared to their free-living counterpart. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. The increasing energy demand and concerns about CO2 emissions and global climate change caused by reliance on fossil fuels as our primary energy source give rise to an urgent requirement for renewable energy, such as biofuels.1,2 Biofuels, produced from renewable resources or biomass feedstocks by microbial cell factories, are already implemented as drop-in fuels.1,2 In traditional microbial fermentation processes for biofuel production by heterotrophic microorganisms, including Escherichia coli and Sacch… Phycobilisomes are the major light-harvesting complexes present in cyanobacteria and they consist mainly of phycobiliproteins such as phycocyanin, allophycocyanin, and phycoerythrin. Cyanovirin-N, scytovirin N, and sulfoglycolipid isolated from Nostoc ellipsosporum, Scytonema varium, and Scytonema sp., respectively, are shown to exhibit potent antiviral activity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) [59–61]. The accumulation of ~50 μg isoprene per g dry cell weight per day was achievable in recombinant Synechocystis sp. Miroalgae and Cyanobacteria along with higher plants, are capable of oxygenic photosynthesis according to the following reaction: CO 2 + H 2 O ® 6 [CH 2 O] + O 2. Photosynthetic bacteria are used as biofertilizers, for bioremediation, waste water treatment and purification of polluted water. 4) was growth aerobically in 250-ml Erlenmeyer flasks con- Isoprene is an energy rich hydrocarbon that is potentially a biofuel and an important feedstock in the synthetic chemistry industry. Large scale application of cyanobacterial biofactories is still a technical challenge due to low yields and commoditization of biotechnological products. Equipped with superior photosynthesis capabilities, cyanobacteria have higher photosynthesis and biomass production rates compared to plants and can convert up to 3–9% of the solar energy into biomass compared to ≤0.25–3% achieved by crops, for example, corn, sugar cane . LIMNETICA, ANAEROBIC PHOTOAUTOTROPHIC GROWTH shift between aerobic and anaerobic growth (withNa2S) is described. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a type of biodegradable polymer that can serve as substitute for petroleum-based plastics and a biocompatible material that has promising applications in biomedical or pharmaceutical field. Grant Burgess, and P. C. Wright, “Marine cyanobacteria—a prolific source of natural products,”, L. J. Stal, “Physiological ecology of cyanobacteria in microbial mats and other communities,”, Y. Cohen, B. In another example, enhanced hydrogen production in S. elongatus PCC 7942 was obtained through heterologous expression of exogenous [FeFe] hydrogenases (HydA) from Clostridium acetobutylicum . PUPCCC 64, Westiellopsis prolifica, Nostoc hatei, and Anabaena sphaerica are able to degrade organophosphorus or organochlorine insecticides in the aquatic environment [26, 27]. Oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria perform photosynthesis in a similar manner to plants. They are by far the most widespread occurring photosynthetic organisms. As the carbon content of the synthesized compound originates from the carbon dioxide fixed during photosynthesis, the productivity of the system depends on the efficiency of carbon dioxide fixation. The lack of observed phosphatase by larger photo-synthetic cells and the close association of these cells with PPOs indicate a possible interaction whereby PPOs obtain photosynthetically ﬁxed carbon from cyanobacteria and, in turn, provide inorganic phosphorus (P) and other compounds to the cyanobacteria. Two distinct types of hydrogenases are present in different cyanobacterial species: uptake hydrogenases that oxidize oxygen; bidirectional or reversible hydrogenases that can both take up or produce hydrogen . . More than 14 genera of cyanobacteria are known to produce hydrogen under various culture conditions and they include Anabaena, Aphanocapsa, Calothrix, Microcystis, Nostoc, and Oscillatoria [15, 34–36]. Also referred to as blue-green algae and blue-green bacteria, cyanobacteriais a bacteria phylum that obtain their energy through a process known as photosynthesis. It is marketed in the form of powder, granules, tablets, or capsules and commercially available Spirulina tablets contain up to 244 μg of vitamin B12 per dry weight . Cyanobacteria, endowed with photosynthesis system to fix carbon dioxide into reduced form, are ideal biosynthetic machinery for sustainable production of various chemicals and biofuels. Definition of Photoautotrophic: Photoautotroph are organisms that carry out photosynthesis. It is interesting to note that cyanobacterial mats including Oscillatoria, Synechocystis, and Pleurocapsa have been shown to aid in the degradation of hydrocarbons present in oil. These are aerobic and photoautotrophic organisms. In this paper, the recent progress in developing cyanobacteria for various potential applications in biotechnology is discussed. They are usually dominated by photoautotrophic cyanobacteria, lichens and mosses, growing together with heterotrophic fungi, bacteria and archaea in varying composition. Cyanobacteria, which are prokaryotic organisms which carry out oxygenic photosynthesis, occupy many environmental conditions, including fresh water, seas, soil, and lichen. PCC 7002 had resulted in a significant increase in the NADH/NAD+ ratio and a concomitant fivefold increase in hydrogen production by the native bidirectional [NiFe] hydrogenase . showed antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas striata, Bacillus subtilis, E. coli, and Bradyrhizobium sp. Note the numerous bacteria in the background. Equipped with the ability to degrade environmental pollutants and remove heavy metals, cyanobacteria are promising tools for bioremediation and wastewater treatment. Light availability plays pivotal role in determining the growth of photoautotrophs; thus, selective pressure has favored adaptations that maximize light capture in photosynthetic biological systems to compete for sunlight. Being prokaryotes, cyanobacteria possess relatively simple genetic background that eases manipulation . Oscillatoria sp. The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. The research of the first author on cyanobacteria has been supported by research grant (1002/PCCB/910206) from Universiti Sains Malaysia. Cyanobacteria or Cyanophyta are the only form of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria known to date. PCC 6803 transformed with codon optimized IspS gene. Because they require the basic environmental conditions, this bacteria can be found in a variety of environments ranging from marine to terrestrial habitats. Organic carbon, however, has δ13C values that range from −20 per mil for photoautotrophic bacteria to −60 per mil for microbial communities that recycle methane. Cyanobacteria grown under photoautotrophic, photoheterotrophic, and heterotrophic regimes: Sugar metabolism and carbon dioxide fixation F. Joset-Espardellier Laboratoire de Photosynthèse, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 91 Gifsur Yvette, France. Silver, “Engineering cyanobacteria to generate high-value products,”, G. R. Lambert and G. D. Smith, “Hydrogen formation by marine blue-green algae,”, M. Chen, J. Li, L. Zhang et al., “Auto-flotation of heterocyst enables the efficient production of renewable energy in cyanobacteria,”, H. Leino, S. Shunmugam, J. Isojärvi et al., “Characterization of ten H, P. Tamagnini, R. Axelsson, P. Lindberg, F. Oxelfelt, R. Wünschiers, and P. Lindblad, “Hydrogenases and hydrogen metabolism of cyanobacteria,”, M. L. Ghirardi, M. C. Posewitz, P.-C. Maness, A. Dubini, J. Yu, and M. Seibert, “Hydrogenases and hydrogen photoproduction in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms,”, K. McNeely, Y. Xu, N. Bennette, D. A. Bryant, and G. C. Dismukes, “Redirecting reductant flux into hydrogen production via metabolic engineering of fermentative carbon metabolism in a cyanobacterium,”, G. K. Kumaraswamy, T. Guerra, X. Qian, S. Zhang, D. A. Bryant, and G. C. Dismukes, “Reprogramming the glycolytic pathway for increased hydrogen production in cyanobacteria: Metabolic engineering of NAD, D. Mendez-Perez, M. B. Begemann, and B. F. Pfleger, “Modular synthase-encoding gene involved in, E. J. Steen, Y. Kang, G. Bokinsky et al., “Microbial production of fatty-acid-derived fuels and chemicals from plant biomass,”, A. Schirmer, M. A. Rude, X. Li, E. Popova, and S. B. del Cardayre, “Microbial biosynthesis of alkanes,”, W. Wang, X. Liu, and X. Lu, “Engineering cyanobacteria to improve photosynthetic production of alka(e)nes,”, B. K. Kaiser, M. Carleton, J. W. Hickman et al., “Fatty aldehydes in cyanobacteria are a metabolically flexible precursor for a diversity of biofuel products,”, T. Yoshino, Y. Liang, D. Arai et al., “Alkane production by the marine cyanobacterium, H. Mohapatra and R. Gupta, “Concurrent sorption of Zn(II), Cu(II) and Co(II) by, Y. Pouliot, G. Buelna, C. Racine, and J. de la Noüe, “Culture of cyanobacteria for tertiary wastewater treatment and biomass production,”, S. Vijayakumar, “Potential applications of cyanobacteria in industrial effluents—a review,”, R. M. M. Abed, S. Dobretsov, and K. Sudesh, “Applications of cyanobacteria in biotechnology,”, R. M. M. Abed and J. Köster, “The direct role of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria associated with cyanobacteria in the degradation of oil compounds,”, E. M. Gross, “Allelopathy of aquatic autotrophs,”, H.-U. Were the first organisms to use more resources than either photoautotrophic or organoheterotrophic bacteria and wax photoautotrophic bacteria and cyanobacteria fatty. In the engineered Synechocystis sp compounds was enhanced in immobilized Chlorella and Anabaena [ 23 ] 2 ) network... Of isobutanol in cyanobacteria is also feasible Earth for Over 2 Billion years our! 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